Michel de Certeau's "Walking in the City" opens up the world in a new light by comparing the world at large to the world of literature.
Looking down at "The City" in this case, New York City one sees many conflicting things:
"Ambition and degradation".
"Races and styles".
"Yesterday and today".
His view, and thus the spectators view from above the city shows a "universe that is constantly exploding".
And one can see "excess in both expendature and production".
This is very much like the literature of today's modern world.
All of the styles and topics are varying, and one forgets the glory of the past when pressing towards the future. The showy forms of "art", be it on a page, wall, or screen is much flashier and more expensive than ever before.
The city holds it's own space and is it's own subject, as is a work of literature.
"The walking of passerby offers a series of turns and detours that can be compared to "turns of phrase" or "stylistic figures". There is a rhetoric of walking."
-Walking in the City, Michel de Certeau (Richter pg 1348-1349)
Walking through the city, one creates their own path and their own story. Walking manipulates space, as well as "creates shadows and ambiguities" (Richter 1349).
There is art everywhere one looks. Expression is art, and words on a page are not the only things that create a work of art or literature.
Discourse is what helps one express all of these things, but it is also the thing that takes away beliefs, according to de Certeau.
No matter where you look, from the highest tower to the lowest valley, discourse rules the world.